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Pore Size Distribution and Analysis
Quantachrome offers instruments for determining pore size by electroacoustics, capillary flow porometry, mercury porosimetry and gas adsorption.
The choice of method depends on the type of pores and the expected pore size, generally with gas sorption being suitable for micro to meso pores, mercury porosimetry for meso to macro pores and flow porometry for most through pores. In practice the structures can contain many different types of pores requiring more than one analytical approach. With the introduction of electroacoustics, mean pore size can be determined very rapidly without mercury, cryogens or vacuum pumps.
Electroacoustics uses an electrokinetic phenomenon called the seismoelectric effect to determine the mean pore size of a material. When high frequency ultrasound is applied to a wetted porous material the resulting electroseismic current is dependent on the capacitance effect of the double layer as well as how they overlap in pores. To make the measurement, the material is fully wetted with a suitable liquid (depending on the type of sample) and can return results in a few minutes.
Read more about Electroacoustics
Capillary Flow Porometry
Capillary flow porometry, also know as the liquid expulsion technique, uses the simple principle of gas pressure to force a wetting liquid out of through-pores in a sample. Through pores are simply those that connect from one side of the sample to the other. The pressure at which pores empty is inversely proportional to the pore size, larger pores require a lower pressure than do smaller pores. The resulting volumetric flow of gas through emptied pores is also measured. Pore size is calculated using the Washburn equation.
Read more about Capillary Flow Porometry
The operation of all mercury porosimeters is based upon the physical principle that a non-reactive, non-wetting liquid will not penetrate fine pores until sufficient pressure is applied to force its entry. The relationship between the applied pressure and the pore diameter into which mercury will intrude is given by the Washburn equation.
Read more about Mercury Porosimetry
Pore size determination by gas sorption requires a recognition and understanding of different basic isotherm types. IUPAC Classification recognizes six types of Sorption Isotherms, and the pore size distribution can be calculated from the adsorption or desorption branch of the isotherm. In some cases the desorption curve does not follow the adsorption curve creating the so called hysteresis adding more information about the pore structure.
The interpretation of these isotherms and the use of the appropriate models:
NLDFT, QSDFT, Monte-Carlo, t-plot, alpha-s method, MP method, DR & DA methods, BJH, DH, all included in Autosorb-iQ, Nova and Quadrasorb Series of instruments yield information about the pore structures, pore volume and pore size distribution.
The tendency of all solid surfaces to attract surrounding gas molecules gives rise to a process called gas sorption. Monitoring the gas sorption process provides a wealth of useful information about the characteristics of solids such as surface area and pore size. Surface area is calculated from the monolayer amount, often using the BET method, and pore size is calculated from pore filling pressures.
Read more about BET Surface Area & Gas Adsorption
For more information contact us.
Pore Size Research Papers
Review recent papers citing use of Quantachrome pore size instruments:
TITLE: Biocompatibility evaluation of porous ceria foams for orthopedic tissue engineering
AUTHORS: Ball, Mound, Monsalve, Nino and Allen - University of Florida, USA
INSTRUMENT: Porometer 3G
USAGE: The pore sizes of the ceria foams were measured using a capillary flow porometer
TITLE: Biotemplated synthesis of highly stable calcium-based sorbents for CO2 capture via a precipitation method
AUTHORS: Witoon, Mungcharoen, Limtrakul - Kasetsart University, Thailand
USAGE: pore size distribution and pore volume of CaO sorbents were determined by N 2 -sorption measurement ... at −196 °C
TITLE: Preparation of porous mullite–corundum ceramics with controlled pore size using bioactive yeast as pore-forming agent
AUTHORS: Guogang Xu, Yinghua Ma, Hongzhi Cui et al - Shandong University of Science and Technology, China
INSTRUMENT: Poremaster 33G
USAGE: Mercury porosimetry measurement was carried out … for characterizing the pore size distribution and porosity
TITLE: Effect of Thermal Treatment on the Physical Properties of Electrospun PVDF/PMMA Composite Membrane
AUTHORS: Jian Meng Zhao, Yin Zheng Liang et al - Donghua University, China
INSTRUMENT: Porometer 3G
USAGE: The pore size was tested by a automatic porometer. The porosity was measured using n-butyl alcohol soaking method.
TITLE: An Egg-Shell Type Ni/Al2O3 Catalyst Derived from Layered Double Hydroxides Precursor for Selective Hydrogenation of Pyrolysis Gasoline
AUTHORS: Xin Wen, Rushi Li, Yixuan Yang, Jiali Chen, Fazhi Zhang - Beijing University of Chemical Technology, China
USAGE: The Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) method was used to calculate pore volume and the pore size distribution
TITLE: Sol–gel synthesis of macroporous TiO2 from ionic precursors via phase separation route
AUTHORS: Wenyan Li, Xingzhong Guo, Yang Zhu et al - Zhejiang University, China
INSTRUMENT: Poremaster 60-GT
USAGE: Macropore size distribution of the dried gel monolith was evaluated by mercury porosimetry
TITLE: Preparation and properties of PTFE hollow fiber membranes for desalination through vacuum membrane distillation
AUTHORS: Hailin Zhu, Hongjie Wang, Feng Wang et al - Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, China
INSTRUMENT: Porometer 3GZH
USAGE: The bubble point and pore size distribution of the PTFE hollow fiber membranes were investigated by using a Capillary Flow Porometer
TITLE: Materials Characteristics of Roman and Arabic Mortars and Stuccoes from the Patio De Banderas in the Real Alcazar of Seville (Spain)
AUTHORS: Garofano, Robador, Duran - Seville University, Spain
USAGE: Pore size and porosity in the converted samples at each period were determined using mercury porosimetry analyzer
TITLE: Nanosized metal–organic framework of Fe-MIL-88NH2 as a novel peroxidase mimic and used for colorimetric detection of glucose
AUTHORS: Ya Li Liu, Xi Juan Zhao, Xiao Xi Yang and Yuan Fang Li - Southwest University, China
USAGE: pore size and pore volume were determined by N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms obtained at 77 35 K
TITLE: Hierarchically structured bioactive foams based on polyvinyl alcohol–sepiolite nanocomposites
AUTHORS: Wicklein, Aranda, Ruiz-Hitzkya, Darder - Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Spain
USAGE: pore size distribution of the foams was measure by using a mercury intrusion porosimeter