- Surface Area & Gas Adsorption
- Pore Size
- Representative Sampling
- Particle Size
- Particle Shape
- Dynamic Vapor Sorption (DVS)
- Zeta Potential
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BET Surface Area & Gas Adsorption
Surface area, porosity and pore size distribution measurements for materials characterisation.
BET surface area analysis is a technique used to determine the specific surface area of powders, solids and granules, the values are expressed in meter square per gram.
Clean solid surfaces adsorb surrounding gas molecules and Brunauer, Emmett and Teller theory (BET) provides a mathematical model for the process of gas sorption. This physical adsorption of a gas over the entire exposed surface of a material and the filling of pores is called physisorption and is used to measure total surface area and pore size analysis of nanopores, micropores and mesopores.
The BET surface area measurement is crucial in understanding the behaviour of a material, as material reacts with its surroundings via its surface, a higher surface area material is more likely to react faster, dissolve faster and adsorb more gas than a similar material with a lower surface area.
Typical analysis would include:
- Specific surface area BET surface area analysis using Nitrogen, or Krypton for low surface area materials
- Pore size analysis. Mesopore analysis using traditional Kelvin equation models such as BJH, or advanced DFT based models.
- Micropore analysis Accurate measurement of micropores requires high vacuum, accurate low pressure transducers and advanced pore modelling calculations such as Quantachrome’s range of DFT micropore models.
- Pore size distribution by: pore diameter, pore volume and pore surface area.
- Percentage of porosity
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BET Surface Area & Gas Adsorption Research Papers
Review recent papers citing use of Quantachrome BET surface area instruments:
TITLE: Production and characterization of activated carbon from sour cherry stones by zinc chloride
AUTHORS: Dilek Angin - Sakarya University, Turkey
USAGE: To determine the surface area and pore structure of activated carbon samples, the nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms at 77 K were measured by an automated adsorption instrument
TITLE: Non-linear ASF product distribution over alkaline-earth promoted molybdenum carbide catalysts for hydrocarbon synthesis
AUTHORS: Dai-Viet N. Vo, Arcotumapathy, Abdullah, Adesina - University of New South Wales, Australia
USAGE: BET surface area and pore volume were determined at 77K … using N2 physisorption
TITLE: Quantitative Determination of Lattice Fluoride Effects on the Solubility and Crystallinity of Carbonated Apatites with Incorporated Fluoride
AUTHORS:Yan, Moribe, Otsuka, Papangkorn, Higuchi - Idaho State University, USA
USAGE: The specific surface area of each F-CAP sample was determined by the BET method with nitrogen as the adsorbate
TITLE: Influence of fuels and combustion aids on solution combustion synthesis of bi-phasic calcium phosphates (BCP)
AUTHORS:Aghayan, Rodríguez - Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio (ICV-CSIC), Spain
USAGE: Specific surface area (SSA) of the powder was determined by BET model with data provided by a dynamic adsorption equipment
TITLE: A structural and electrochemical study of Ni0.5TiOPO4 synthesized via modified solution route
AUTHORS: Godbole, Villevieille, Sommer, Colin and Novák - Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland
USAGE: Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area was measured for NiTOP–AS and NiTOP–BM8 h using N 2 physisorption
TITLE: Synthesis, characterization and experimental investigation of Cu-BTC as CO2 adsorbent from flue gas
AUTHORS: Enterría, Suárez-García, Martínez-Alonso and Tascón - Instituto Nacional del Carbón, Spain
INSTRUMENT: Nova 2200e
USAGE: BET surface area of Cu-BTC was measured … using high purity nitrogen as adsorbate
Gas Adsorption Research Papers
Review recent papers citing use of Quantachrome gas adsorption instruments:
TITLE: The effect of the gas composition on hydrogen-assisted NH3-SCR over Ag/Al2O3
AUTHORS:Tamm, Fogel, Gabrielsson, Skoglundh and Olsson - Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden
USAGE: The specific surface area was 270 m2/g as measured for the Ag/Al2O3 catalyst by N2-adsorption by single point BET
TITLE: Visible and UV photocatalytic characterization of Sn–TiO2 electrospun fibers
AUTHORS: Alves, Berutti, Bergmann - Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
INSTRUMENT: Nova 1000
USAGE: N2 adsorption isotherms of the samples were measured … at liquid nitrogen temperature. The specific surface areas were calculated using the BET method.
TITLE: Direct amide bond formation from carboxylic acids and amines using activated alumina balls as a new, convenient, clean, reusable and low cost heterogeneous catalyst
AUTHORS: Ghosh, Bhaumik, Mondal , Mallik, et al - University of Calcutta, India
USAGE: Nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms of the samples were recorded … at 77 K. Prior to the gas adsorption measurements, the samples were degassed
at 473 K for 6 hours under high vacuum
TITLE: Competitive adsorption of phenol and 3-chlorophenol on purified MWCNTs
AUTHORS: Tóth, Törőcsik, Tombácz, László - Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary
INSTRUMENT: Nova 2000e
USAGE: Nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms were measured at 77 K. The samples were evacuated at 293 K for 24 hours.